Customs IP Enforcement

Jim Chester Speaks at State Bar of Texas Annual “Advanced IP” CLE

By Blog, Customs IP Enforcement, Import, Intellectual Property, International Business, International IP, News, Technology Transactions

Dallas, Texas, 14 April 2014 – J. F. (Jim) Chester, founding partner in the Dallas-based business & innovation law firm of Chester & Jeter LLP recently presented a speech on the U.S. regulation of international technology transfers to a statewide audience of intellectual property attorneys at an event sponsored by the Intellectual Property Section of the State Bar of Texas (SBOT).

Chester’s presentation was part of the SBOT’s annual 2-day “Advanced IP” CLE program, which features many of the stats most notable IP attorneys.  This year’s event was held in Dallas, Texas.

The title of Chester’s presentation was: “International Technology Transfers”, and focused on the regulatory issues associated with the import and export of technology and IP-oriented goods and information.

Chester reports, “I was honored to be asked to participate in this program, which is one of the top IP law-oriented events in the State of Texas.  IP is an increasingly global asset, and although increased international trade creates opportunities for IP owners, there are also increased risks. I applaud the SBOT, and the IP Section in particular, for ensuring that emerging important subject like these are addressed in its programs. ”




About Chester & Jeter LLP

Chester & Jeter LLP is a Dallas, Texas law firm providing comprehensive legal services to innovation-based companies doing business in the US, around the world, and on the web.  Its mission (and passion) is helping entrepreneurs and emerging companies solve problems and protect their interests. Chester & Jeter LLP delivers value by providing business-savvy, cost-effective solutions to legal challenges.  The firm offers a wide array of business legal solutions, such as business entity formation (LLCs, corporations, etc.), trademarks and other intellectual property, technology transactions, contracts, ecommerce, employment law and dispute resolution.  Additional information about the firm and its attorneys may be found at


Annual Report of Customs Seizures for IP Violations

By Customs IP Enforcement, Import, Intellectual Property, International IP

U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement’s (ICE) Homeland Security Investigations (HSI) and U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) recently announced the comprehensive results of counterfeit and pirated goods seized during fiscal year (FY) 2013. Under the Department of Homeland Security (DHS), HSI and CBP are the agencies charged with the enforcement of intellectual property rights (IPR) for goods entering the United States.

The number of IPR seizures increased nearly 7 percent from 22,848 in FY 2012 to 24,361 in FY 2013. The manufacturer’s suggested retail price (MSRP) of the seized goods also increased from $1.26 billion in FY 2012 to $1.74 billion in FY 2013. DHS averaged slightly over 66 seizures per day, with an average MSRP of each seizure being slightly more than $71,500.

“These numbers are the result of the hard work of the men and women of the Department of Homeland Security and the increased collaboration of our agencies through the IPR Center,” said ICE’s Principal Deputy Assistant Secretary Thomas S. Winkowski. “But a great deal more has to be done to protect the public from the health and safety threat that counterfeits pose to our society. We will continue to pursue these criminals and educate the public about the real threats that intellectual property crimes pose.”

“Together with our IPR partners, CBP continues to guard the nation’s borders against counterfeit products,” said CBP Commissioner R. Gil Kerlikowske. “These products are not only unsafe and dangerous to consumers, but they also pose a threat to the economic security of our country.”

The National Intellectual Property Rights Coordination Center (IPR Center) continued Operation In Our Sites (IOS), a long-term law enforcement initiative which targets counterfeiting and piracy on the Internet. In FY 2013, the IPR Center seized 1,413 domain names, and since the launch of IOS in June 2010, the center has seized more than 2,700 domain names. Collaboration through the IPR Center led to 692 arrests, 401 criminal indictments, and 451 criminal convictions for criminal IPR infringement activities in FY 2013.

The People’s Republic of China remained the primary source for counterfeit and pirated goods seized in FY 2013 with a total value of $1.1 billion. This represented 68 percent of all IPR seizures by MSRP. DHS also made seizures from 73 additional economies during FY 2013 including Hong Kong, India, Korea, Singapore and Vietnam.

The HSI-led IPR Center is one of the U.S. government’s key weapons in the fight against criminal counterfeiting and piracy. Working in close coordination with the Department of Justice Task Force on Intellectual Property, the IPR Center uses the expertise of its 21-member agencies to share information, develop initiatives, coordinate enforcement actions and conduct investigations related to intellectual property theft. Through this strategic interagency partnership, the IPR Center protects the public’s health and safety and the U.S. economy.


Black-Out Monday: 706 Web Sites Selling Counterfeit Merchandise Seized

By copyright, Customs IP Enforcement, Export, Import, Intellectual Property, International IP, Internet / eCommerce, News, Technology Transactions

U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement’s (ICE) Homeland Security Investigations (HSI) teamed with 10 foreign law enforcement agencies to seize hundreds of domain names that were illegally selling counterfeit merchandise online to unsuspecting consumers. Seizures come as US consumers flock to the Web for Cyber Monday shopping deals.

The 706 domain names seized were set up to dupe consumers into unknowingly buying counterfeit goods as part of the holiday shopping season. The operations were coordinated by the HSI-led National Intellectual Property Rights Coordination Center (IPR Center) in Washington, D.C.

An iteration of “Operation In Our Sites,” Project Cyber Monday IV resulted in the seizure of 297 domain names from undercover operations conducted by HSI offices around the country. This is the fourth year that the IPR Center has targeted websites selling counterfeit products online in conjunction with Cyber Monday. Due to the global nature of Internet crime, the IPR Center partnered with Europol who, through its member countries, seized 393 foreign-based top-level domains as part of Project Transatlantic III. Additionally, Hong Kong Customs coordinated the seizure of 16 foreign-based top-level domains hosted in Hong Kong, enlisting the assistance of the web-hosting companies to suspend the service of related websites.

“Working with our international partners on operations like this shows the true global impact of IP crime,” said ICE Acting Director John Sandweg. “Counterfeiters take advantage of the holiday season and sell cheap fakes to unsuspecting consumers everywhere. Consumers need to protect themselves, their families, and their personal financial information from the criminal networks operating these bogus sites.”

During the weeks leading up to the end of the year, the market is flooded with counterfeit products being sold at stores, on street corners, and online, according to law enforcement officials, not only ripping off the consumer with shoddy products, but also putting their personal financial information at risk. The most popular counterfeit products seized each year include headphones, sports jerseys, personal care products, shoes, toys, luxury goods, cell phones and electronic accessories, according to the IPR Center.

“This operation is another good example of how transatlantic law enforcement cooperation works. It sends a signal to criminals that they should not feel safe anywhere,” said Rob Wainwright, director of Europol. “Unfortunately the economic downturn has meant that disposable income has gone down, which may tempt more people to buy products for prices that are too good to be true. Consumers should realize that, by buying these products, they risk supporting organized crime.”

During the last few weeks, the IPR Center and its international partners received leads from trademark holders regarding the infringing websites. Those leads were disseminated to HSI offices in Denver, Dallas, El Paso, Houston and Salt Lake City as well as the Belgium Economic Inspection, Belgium Customs, Denmark Police, Hungarian Customs, French Gendarmerie, French Customs, Romanian Police, Spanish Guardia Civil, City of London Police, and Hong Kong Customs and Excise Department.

The domain names seized are now in the custody of the governments involved in these operations. Visitors typing those domain names into their Web browsers will now find a banner that notifies them of the seizure and educates them about the federal crime of willful copyright infringement.

During this operation, federal law enforcement officers made undercover purchases of a host of products including professional sports jerseys and equipment, DVD sets and a variety of clothing, jewelry and luxury goods from online retailers who were suspected of selling counterfeit products. Upon confirmation by the trademark or copyright holders that the purchased products were counterfeit or otherwise illegal, law enforcement officers obtained seizure orders for the domain names of the websites that sold these goods.

Operation In Our Sites is a sustained law enforcement initiative that began more than three years ago to protect consumers by targeting the sale of counterfeit merchandise on the Internet. The 297 domain names seized under Project Cyber Monday IV bring the total number of In Our Sites domain names seized to 2,550 since the operation began in June 2010. In that time, the seizure banner has received more than 122 million individual views.

U.S. Attorney’s Offices in the District of Utah, Western District of Texas, Southern District of Texas, Northern District of Texas, and the District of Colorado issued the warrants for U.S. seizures. Significant assistance was provided by the Department of Justice’s Computer Crime and Intellectual Property Section.

The HSI-led IPR Center is one of the U.S. government’s key weapons in the fight against criminal counterfeiting and piracy. Working in close coordination with the Department of Justice Task Force on Intellectual Property, the IPR Center uses the expertise of its 21-member agencies to share information, develop initiatives, coordinate enforcement actions and conduct investigations related to intellectual property theft. Through this strategic interagency partnership, the IPR Center protects the public’s health and safety and the U.S. economy.



Elderly Man Arrested for Smuggling Counterfeit Erectile Dysfunction Pills

By Customs IP Enforcement, Intellectual Property

A man was sentenced recently to 30 months in federal prison for smuggling nearly 40,000 counterfeit erectile dysfunction pills that were discovered in a golf bag and other luggage when he entered the United States at Los Angeles International Airport last year.

Kil Jun Lee, 73, who resides in the Koreatown district of Los Angeles, was sentenced by U.S. District Judge Dean D. Pregerson, who said the sentence, in part, was due to the threat to public health posed by the counterfeit pills. The case is a result of a probe by U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement’s (ICE) Homeland Security Investigations (HSI), with substantial assistance from U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP).

In May, a federal jury found Lee guilty of three counts of smuggling and three counts of trafficking in counterfeit goods for bringing the phony pills into the United States in February 2012. The retail value of the pills would have been more than $750,000 had the medications been genuine.

The counterfeit products – purporting to be Viagra, Cialis and Levitra – were discovered by CBP officers at LAX when Lee returned from a trip to China that included a stop in his native Korea. Most of the pills were hidden in a golf bag.

Analysis of the pills showed they were inconsistent with the genuine products. While many of the pills contained the active ingredient for the brand name medications, they typically contained the wrong amount (up to 150 percent of the claimed dose) or contained the active ingredient for a competitor’s product (so the purported Viagra would contain the active ingredient found in Cialis). Some of the counterfeit pills had no active ingredient at all.

When HSI special agents subsequently searched Lee’s residence, they found a small number of counterfeit pills, as well as numerous counterfeit labels that were hidden under a rug.

“The danger of this conduct is substantial,” prosecutors wrote in a sentencing memorandum filed with the court. “Indeed, while the government is not aware of any inherently harmful chemicals contained in the pills, the prospect of a user ingesting pills that contain more active ingredient than is listed on the pill, or a different active ingredient than is supposed to be in that pill, raises serious medical concerns.”


Venezuelan Colonel Sentenced for Arms Export Conspiracy

By Customs IP Enforcement

A Venezuelan air force colonel has been sentenced to 19 months in federal prison for exporting military aircraft engines to Venezuela, following a joint probe by U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement’s (ICE) Homeland Security Investigations (HSI), the Defense Criminal Investigative Service and FBI.

Guiseppe Luciano Menegazzo-Carrasquel, 49, was sentenced Aug. 19 by U.S. District Judge G. Murray Snow for conspiracy to violate the Arms Export Control Act. In addition to the prison term, Menegazzo-Carrasquel will be subject to three years of supervision. Menegazzo-Carrasquel pleaded guilty to the charge June 3.

According to court documents, Menegazzo-Carrasquel was part of a Venezuelan air force team that negotiated with Mesa-based Marsh Aviation between November 2005 and February 2008 to refurbish 18 T-76 aircraft engines for use by the Venezuelan air force, under the guise that the engines were meant for civilian use.

T-76 engines are a designated item on the U.S. Munitions List, which, under the Arms Export Control Act, makes it illegal for these engines to be exported without a license or written authorization from the Department of State. The T-76 aircraft engine was designed for the OV-10 Bronco Aircraft, a light armed reconnaissance aircraft specifically suited for counter-insurgency missions.

“Our investigation showed that the defendants in this case falsely claimed these engines were parts for civilian aircraft in an attempt to circumvent the law,” said Matt Allen, special agent in charge of HSI Arizona. “The enforcement of arms export controls keeps America safe. One of HSI’s top enforcement priorities is preventing military equipment and sensitive technology from falling into the hands of those who might seek to harm America or its allies.”

Menegazzo-Carrasquel, who is a dual Venezuelan and Italian citizen, was indicted on arms export charges in October 2010. He was arrested by HSI special agents in September 2012 at George H. Bush Intercontinental Airport after he arrived in Houston on a flight from Caracas, using his Italian passport.

Floyd D. Stillwell, 87, former president of Marsh Aviation, who was also charged in the scheme, pleaded guilty Oct. 29, 2012, to conspiracy to violate the Arms Export Control Act and was sentenced May 13 to a $250,000 fine and five years’ probation.


Customs Seizes $3.9 in Counterfeit Consumer Goods

By Customs IP Enforcement, Intellectual Property

U.S. Customs and Border Protection officers seized a shipment of 70,000 counterfeit consumer products July 22 at the port of Newark, N.J. Working closely with the Consumer Product Safety Commission, CBP officers intercepted an estimated $3.9 million worth of the illicit products, including razor blades, toys, sunglasses, markers and batteries, for violating intellectual property laws.

The shipment, which arrived from China, was targeted using CPSC-defined health and safety rules through the Commercial Targeting and Analysis Center in Washington, D.C. In conjunction with CPSC, CTAC identified the cargo for physical examination upon arrival in Newark.

Once identified at the port, CBP personnel examined the shipment, discovered intellectual property violations and seized the goods.

“The partnership between CBP, CPSC and other agencies at the CTAC enables greater sharing of information and targeting to ensure the safety of imported products,” said CBP Assistant Commissioner Allen Gina. “Interagency collaboration at the CTAC, combined with the vigilance of CBP officers at the ports truly exemplifies one U.S. Government working together at the border to protect American consumers.”

Counterfeit goods threaten American innovation, the competitiveness of its businesses, the livelihood of its workers and the health and safety of consumers who purchase inferior products that do not meet federal safety standards. CBP protects businesses and consumers from these risks every day through aggressive targeting and enforcement programs.

In fiscal year 2012, CBP and its investigative partner U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement seized 22,848 shipments for intellectual property rights violations, for a total retail value of $1.26 billion. ( IPR Seizure Statistics: FY 2012(pdf-1,629KB.) )


Customs Seizes $12M in Fake Designer Watches

By Customs IP Enforcement, Intellectual Property

U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) officers and import specialists assigned to the Los Angeles International Airport (LAX) seized 215 watches bearing counterfeit Rolex, Louis Vuitton, Cartier and Omega registered trademarks.

The merchandise, which arrived from China via air cargo, was seized by CBP officials on August 8. If genuine, the seized watches estimated manufacturer’s suggested retail price, sold at retail to the consumer would be $1,250,500.

“This seizure of these trademarked watches is testament to our officers’ vigilance in protecting the intellectual property rights of manufacturers and retailers,” stated Todd C. Owen, director of the Los Angeles Field Operations office of U.S. Customs and Border Protection. “It is just another example of the caliber of the CBP officers in performing their day-to-day duties.”

CBP officers discovered the counterfeit merchandise after inspecting the shipment manifested as “watches” with a declared value of $173 and weighing 68 pounds.

Counterfeit and pirated goods pose a serious threat to our nation’s economic vitality, the health and safety of the American consumers, our critical infrastructure and national security.

Approximately $1.26 billion worth of counterfeit goods originating overseas were seized by CBP in 2012.

With an estimated manufacturer’s suggested retail price of $186 million, watches and jewelry ranked as a top-five commodity seized by CBP in fiscal year 2012. In the same period, watches and jewelry represented eight percent of the total number of seizures by CBP nationwide.


$1 Million Counterfeit Merchandise Seized from Baton Rouge Store

By Customs IP Enforcement

U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement’s (ICE) Homeland Security Investigations (HSI), along with the Louisiana Attorney General’s Office, seized 3,082 counterfeit items with a manufacturer’s suggested retail price of more than $1 million from a Baton Rouge business last week. The seized items included counterfeit designer clothing and electronics.

HSI and the Attorney General’s office executed a search warrant at Fashion Express, located on Airline Highway, following an HSI investigation that included multiple undercover buys of counterfeit merchandise. HSI served at least two warning letters to the business regarding the illegal sale of counterfeit merchandise prior to the seizure operation.

“Criminals who sell counterfeit products are parasites on the legitimate businesses that drive our economy,” said Special Agent in Charge of HSI New Orleans Raymond R. Parmer Jr. “The profits of black-market counterfeit sales are routinely diverted to support further criminal activity such as drug trafficking, money laundering and even potential terrorism.” Parmer oversees a five-state area of responsibility including Louisiana, Alabama, Arkansas, Mississippi and Tennessee.

Some of the counterfeit trademarked items seized during the operation include Michael Kors, Nike, Louis Vuitton, Prada, Coach and Polo merchandise. While searching the premises, HSI special agents also discovered thousands of counterfeit name-brand tags and labels that indicate counterfeit merchandise was being assembled inside the store.


Chinese Man Sentenced for Exporting Sensitive US Military Technology to China

By Customs IP Enforcement, Export, Intellectual Property, International IP

A former employee of a New Jersey-based defense contractor was sentenced Monday for exporting sensitive military technology to China, stealing trade secrets and lying to federal agents. The case was investigated by U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement’s (ICE) Homeland Security Investigations (HSI), FBI and U.S. Customs and Border Protection.

Sixing Liu, aka Steve Liu, 49, a Chinese national, who had recently lived in Flanders, N.J., and Deerfield, Ill., was sentenced to 70 months in prison. Liu was also ordered to serve three years of supervised release and pay a $15,000 fine. Restitution is to be determined at a later date.

Liu was convicted by a federal grand jury in September 2012 and has remained in federal custody.

The jury convicted Liu of nine of the 11 counts in the second superseding indictment with which he was charged, including: six counts of violating the Arms Export Control Act and the International Traffic in Arms Regulations; one count of possessing stolen trade secrets in violation of the Economic Espionage Act of 1996; one count of transporting stolen property in interstate commerce; and one count of lying to federal agents.

“Today’s sentencing underscores the potential global consequences when sensitive military weapons and technical data come into the wrong hands,” said Andrew McLees, special agent in charge of HSI Newark. “HSI is determined to bring these criminals to justice and prevent criminal organizations from threatening our safety and security.”

According to court documents, in 2010, Liu stole thousands of electronic files from his employer, L-3 Communications, Space and Navigation Division, located in Budd Lake, N.J. The stolen files detailed the performance and design of guidance systems for missiles, rockets, target locators and unmanned aerial vehicles. Liu stole the files to position and prepare himself for future employment in China. As part of that plan, Liu delivered presentations about the technology at several Chinese universities, the Chinese Academy of Sciences and conferences organized by Chinese government entities. However, Liu was not charged with any crimes related to those presentations.

Liu boarded a flight from Newark Liberty International Airport to China Nov. 12, 2010. Upon his return to the United States Nov. 29, 2010, HSI special agents found Liu in possession of a non-work-issued computer found to contain the stolen material. The following day, Liu lied to HSI special agents about the extent of his work on U.S. defense technology, which the jury found to be a criminal false statement.

The U.S. Department of State later verified that several of the stolen files on Liu’s computer contained export-controlled technical data that relates to defense items listed on the United States Munitions List.

Under federal regulations, items and data covered by the USML may not be exported without a license, which Liu did not obtain. The regulations also provide that it is the policy of the United States to deny licenses to export items and data covered by the USML to countries with which the United States maintains an arms embargo, which includes China.


Operation Red Zone: Keeping Super Bowl Merchandise Honest

By Customs IP Enforcement, Intellectual Property, Internet / eCommerce

Speaking at a National Football League (NFL) news conference Thursday, U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) Director John Morton and NFL Vice President for Legal Affairs Anastasia Danias announced the record-breaking results of a nationwide enforcement operation. The initiative, dubbed ‘Operation Red Zone,’ commenced Sept. 1, 2012, and targeted international shipments of counterfeit merchandise as it entered the United States. Authorities targeted warehouses, stores, flea markets, online vendors and street vendors selling counterfeit game-related sportswear and tickets throughout the country.

Fake jerseys, ball caps, T-shirts, jackets and other souvenirs are among the counterfeit merchandise and clothing confiscated by teams of special agents and officers from ICE’s Homeland Security Investigations (HSI), U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP), U.S. Postal Inspection Service, and state and local police departments around the country — all in partnership with the NFL and other major sports leagues.

“The Super Bowl is one of the nation’s most exciting events. Organized criminals are preying on that excitement, ripping consumers off with counterfeit merchandise and stealing from the American businesses who have worked hard to build a trusted brand,” said Morton. “The sale of counterfeit jerseys and other sports items undermines the legitimate economy, takes jobs away from Americans and fuels crime overseas. No good comes of counterfeiting American products — whether NFL jerseys, airbags, or pharmaceuticals — and we must go after the criminals behind it.”

‘”Hard Goods” Seizures

Special agents from HSI and officers with CBP operated in multiple teams with the NFL and law enforcement agencies throughout the nation to identify illegal shipments imported into the U.S., as well as stores and vendors selling counterfeit trademarked items. With three days left before Super Bowl XLVII, these teams have already seized more than 160,000 items of phony Super Bowl-related memorabilia along with other counterfeit items for a total take of more than $13.6 million. Due to the increased activity of counterfeiting operations around the world, this year the operation began Sept. 1, 2012, and will continue through Feb. 6, 2013.

“We’re delighted to once again partner with federal law enforcement to help combat the influx of counterfeit merchandise,” said Danias. “We are grateful for their tireless efforts to keep counterfeiters from illegally profiting off of the fans’ enthusiasm for their team and the Super Bowl and from hurting the local businesses that play by the rules.”

“In collaboration with the NFL and our Department of Homeland Security partners, we are providing critical support in the effort to protect consumers from counterfeit goods,” said Robert C. Gomez, director of field operations in Atlanta and New Orleans for CBP. “The enforcement of iintellectual property rights is a national agency priority, and our CBP officers and import specialists are actively working to intercept these products. Counterfeit merchandise hurts our economy and, in many cases, presents safety issues. It is a potential source of funding illegal activities that present a threat to our national security.”


In September 2012, HSI Boston — assisted by HSI Providence — executed a search warrant at a residence in Warwick, R.I. HSI seized 226 boxes of counterfeit goods containing 4,016 sports jerseys with a manufacturer’s suggested retail price (MSRP) of $724,340 and approximately $477,000 worth of additional counterfeit goods, as well as $130,057 in U.S. currency and checks. The owner of the home was subsequently arrested and is currently facing federal charges of trafficking in counterfeit goods and smuggling.

In November 2012, HSI Indianapolis special agents responded to a call from Indiana State Fairgrounds Security that an individual at the Indianapolis International Fest was selling items suspected to be counterfeit. Upon arriving at the festival, the special agents were able to verify the goods to be counterfeit and seized 1,319 counterfeit sports ball caps from the individual with an MSRP of $30,095 and approximately $7,600 worth of additional counterfeit goods. HSI arrested the man for illegally trafficking in counterfeit merchandise.

Twenty-one other individuals were arrested in partnership with state and local law enforcement agencies on state charges at locations around the country.

Website Seizures

Furthering HSI’s efforts to combat the international counterfeiting supply chain and piracy online, special agents seized a total of 313 websites identified to be selling counterfeit merchandise.

The website seizures during Operation Red Zone are the next iteration of Operation In Our Sites, a long term law enforcement initiative targeting counterfeiting and piracy on the Internet. The 313 websites have been seized by law enforcement, and are now in the custody of the federal government. Visitors to these websites will find a seizure banner that notifies them that the domain name has been seized by federal authorities and educates them that willful copyright infringement is a federal crime. Since the launch of Operation In Our Sites in June 2010, the HSI-led Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) Center has seized a total of 2,061 domain names.

HSI has continued to work closely with payment processor PayPal to identify bank accounts being used to facilitate the transfer of money to these illegal operations. To date, PayPal and HSI have identified and seized more than $66,000 in assets in these accounts.

“PayPal and eBay Inc. pride ourselves in going above and beyond in the fight against the illegal online trafficking of counterfeit goods by partnering with law enforcement and rights owners globally, and as part of providing safe and trusted payments and commerce platforms,” said Tod Cohen, eBay’s vice president and deputy general counsel of government relations.

Operation Red Zone Continues

Operation Red Zone will continue this weekend at the Super Bowl, throughout the New Orleans-area and around the nation.

The operation was spearheaded by the IPR Center in coordination with the Department of Justice’s Computer Crime and Intellectual Property Section and five U.S. Attorneys’ offices, including the District of Maryland, District of New Jersey, District of Colorado, Eastern District of Louisiana and the District of Utah.